Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders
A group of mental disorders including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder and postpartum psychosis that negatively affect an estimated 15% to 21% of pregnant and postpartum women in the weeks before and/or after birth. Risk factors for developing PMADs include low socioeconomic status, low educational attainment, a history of mental illness, delivering a preterm baby, exposure to interpersonal violence and a lack of social support. Mood and anxiety disorders during the perinatal period can impair the maternal behavioral response, leading to long-term behavioral problems among exposed children. Treatment often relies on the use of psychotropic medications, which may not be indicated for mild to moderate PMADs and may not be an acceptable option for a pregnant or breastfeeding woman.